What are proteins, amino acids, types, structures, functions and sources - MedPGR

What are proteins, amino acids, types, structures, functions and sources

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What are Proteins?

What are proteins?.


Proteins are complex nitrogenous compounds that are composed of Carbon, Nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen, they have high molecular weight. They are also part of our daily diet. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

What are Amino acids?

They are the building blocks of proteins. There are some types of proteins that are determined by the sequence of the amino acids. Amino acids are composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Bonds between the amino acids are called peptide bonds.

What is the structure of amino acids?What is the structure of amino acids?

Proteins are composed of the three main groups that are given below.

  • Amine group (-NH2)
  • Carboxylic group (-COOH)
  • Basic R group (-R)

What are the types of amino acids?

What are the types of amino acids?

There are two types of amino acids that are given below.

  • Essential amino acids
  • Non Essential amino acids

Essential Amino acids:

Essential Amino acids
Those amino acids that the body can not produce and must be taken from the daily diet are called essential amino acids. They are required for proper growth and development. There are 10 essential amino acids that are given below.

  1. Arginine
  2. Histidine
  3. Isoleucine
  4. Leucine
  5. Lysine
  6. Methionine
  7. Phenylalanine
  8. Tryptophan
  9. Threonine
  10. Valine
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Sr. No Essential Amino acid Functions Sources
1 Arginine
  • Essential in early life but later can be produced
  • Role in cell division
  • Healing of wounds
  • Required for formation of collagen, Insulin, hemoglobin, elastin, and glucagon
  • Whole wheat flour
  • Groundnuts
  • Chickpeas
  • Green Root vegetables
  • walnuts
  • Garlic
  • Ginseng
2 Histidine
  • Required during the period of growth
  • Adults can synthesize it.
  • Required for growth
  • Conversion of glucose into glycogen.
  • Repair of tissues.
  • Banana
  • Grapes
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Milk
  • Green Vegetables
3 Isoleucine
  • Release of energy, production, and maintenance of body proteins.
  • Regulate functioning of the thymus gland, pituitary glands, and spleen.
  • Used for the formation of hemoglobin.
  • Eggs
  • Chicken
  • Milk
  • Cereal grains
4 Leucine
  • Help in the release of energy
  • Regulation of proteins metabolism
  • Whole grains
  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Beef
  • Chicken
  • Pulses
  • Leafy vegetables
5 Lysine
  • The building block of proteins
  • Role in the building of Muscles proteins
  • Calcium absorption
  • Help in the elimination of virus infections
  • Inhibit virus proliferation
  • Leafy vegetables
  • Pulses
  • Legumes
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Fish
  • Milk
  • Fruits
  • Cereals
6 Methionine
  • Involved in the synthesis of nucleic acid, collagen, and proteins
  • Antioxidant
  • Protect the liver from fatty degeneration
  • Dissolves cholesterol and hemoglobin
  • Whole grains
  • Sesame seeds
  • Meat
  • Milk
  • Leafy vegetables
  • Grapes
7 Phenylalanine
  • Effect on the thyroid secretion
  • Control appetite
  • Responsible for kidney and bladder functioning
  • Milk
  • Curd
  • Cheese
  • Pulses
  • Legumes
  • Poultry
  • Groundnuts
  • Almonds
  • Pistachio
  • Nuts
  • Leafy vegetables
  • Whole grains
8
  • Threonine
  • Responsible for brain development and functioning
  • Powerful anti-convulsive effect
  • Poultry
  • Groundnuts
  • Leafy vegetables
  • Whole grains
  • Pulses
  • Legumes
  • Nuts
  • Apples
  • Peaches
  • Figs
9 Tryptophan
  • Useful in the synthesis of niacin
  • Blood clotting
  • Formation of digestive juice
  • Induce sleep relaxes the nervous system
  • Milk
  • Bajra
  • Barley
  • Sweet
  • Potatoes
  • Vegetables
  • Mangoes
  • Papaya
  • Seeds
  • Nuts
10 Valine
  • Help in body growth
  • Proper performance of Nervous system
  • Leafy vegetables
  • Cereals
  • Pulses
  • Legumes
  • Nuts
  • Poultry
  • Milk
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Non-Essential Amino acids:

Non-Essential Amino acids
Those amino acids that are produced by the body within the body and that may not cause diseases if they are not taken for a short time are called non-essential amino acids.
A list of non-essential amino acids is given below.

  1. Alanine
  2. Arginine
  3. Asparagine
  4. Aspartic acid
  5. Cystine
  6. Cysteine
  7. Glutamic acid
  8. Glycine
  9. Proline
  10. Serine
  11. Tyrosine

References:

https://www.britannica.com/science/amino-acid

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/macromolecules/proteins-and-amino-acids/a/introduction-to-proteins-and-amino-acids

https://www.technologynetworks.com/applied-sciences/articles/essential-amino-acids-chart-abbreviations-and-structure-324357

https://www.fao.org/3/x5738e/x5738e04.htm

https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/howgeneswork/protein/

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